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Risk Management Practices in Small and Medium Enterprises: Evidence from Romania

  • Page: 1
  • Authors: Adina-Liliana PRIOTEASA, Nicoleta CHICU, Alina-Andreea ȘTEFĂNESCU (MARIN), Alexandru Mihai BUGHEANU, Ruxandra DINULESCU
  • Abstract: Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) face various risks and their survival is more easily threatened due to the lower volume of resources - both financial and non-financial. Integrating risk management into SMEs produces the same benefits as for a large enterprise, allowing the small business owner to act strategically, anticipate risk events and allocate resources to control risk events. This study aims to determine, on the one hand, whether the organizational factors of Romanian SMEs influence the extent to which risk management is integrated into the current activities of SMEs, and on the other hand if there is a significant relationship between the extent to which SMEs use risk management practices and the extent to which risk management is integrated into current activities. The data were collected from 164 representatives of Romanian SMEs by applying a questionnaire and analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression at a significance level of 0.01. The results show that organizational differences affect the extent to which risk management is integrated into the current activities of SMEs. The results also show that there is a positive and significant relationship between the extent to which Romanian SMEs apply risk identification techniques, risk assessment analyses and risk treatment methods and the extent to which risk management is integrated into current activities.
  • JEL Classification: C12, G32, L26
  • Keywords: organizational factors, risk management, risk management practices, Romania, SMEs
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-01

Customer Retention of Mobile Phone Purchasing on Cell Phone Stores in Denpasar

  • Page: 16
  • Authors: Anak Agung Ngurah Gede SADIARTHA
  • Abstract: This paper aims to identify customer retention on mobile phone purchasing on cell phone stores in Denpasar. This study used a quota sampling method to get 240 respondents. Service quality was measured using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM)) model. The formulation of the problem is as follows: "What is the function of customer retention of cellular phone purchases at cellular phone shops in Denpasar City." The purpose of this study was to analysis customer retention of mobile phone purchasing on cell phone stores in Denpasar. Data were collected through survey research, and 240 cell phone owners. The outcome showed that service quality has a negative but significant effect on customer retention, service quality has a positive but not significant effect on promotion at cell phone stores, trademark have a positive and significant effect on customer retention at cell phone stores, trademarks have a positive and significant effect on promotions at cell phone stores, promotions positive and significant effect on customer retention in cell phone stores. Thus, the results showed that trademarks and promotions make cell phone store managers can carry out effective customer retention to develop their business.
  • JEL Classification: M19, M21, M30, M31
  • Keywords: customer retention, promotion, service quality, trademark
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-02

Clustering Consumers Through their Consumption Behavior: Analysis on the Fashion Industry

  • Page: 23
  • Authors: Andreea-Ionela PUIU
  • Abstract: The actual paper aimed to confirm the validity of the consumer styles inventory scale, developed by Sproles and Kendall (1986) on people aged 18-45 years based on their consumption behaviour when it comes to the clothing industry. In this respect, I applied the consumer styles inventory scale on individuals from the Romanian space aged 18-45 years, the responses being collected via online platforms. To the gathered data were applied, in the first part, an exploratory analysis, followed by confirmatory factor analysis. In the second part, the K-means cluster analysis was used to segment individuals in distinct groups based on their demographic characteristics and their financial involvement in purchasing fashion items. The output of the k-means cluster analysis distinguished eight segments of consumers defined as: „casual consumer”, „quality-seeker consumer”, „irrational consumer”, „indifferent consumer”, „habitual consumer”, „occasional consumer”, „fashion consciousness consumer” and „passive consumer”.
  • JEL Classification: D12, D90, C38, L67
  • Keywords: cluster analysis, consumer behaviour, consumer styles inventory, fashion industry
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-03

Online Purchasing and its Determinants: An Experimental Approach

  • Page: 33
  • Authors: Zafer AKIN
  • Abstract: With the rapid and worldwide emergence of electronic commerce in terms of both number of users and volume, the importance of an in-depth understanding of consumers’ attitudes toward online purchasing has been increasing. There is a broad literature on this topic mainly based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) that is extended by including other factors such as trust and risk. This study brings a new angle to the existing literature by measuring risk factor in a laboratory experiment by employing an improved version of a widely used method in experimental economics. Risk preferences are measured for 64 university students who then answer a questionnaire about online purchasing. We propose a comprehensive model based on TAM and employ partial least squares approach to analyze the data. We find that experimentally elicited risk preference measure and variables of hedonic aspect of TAM have significant effects while trust, other risk measures and variables of utilitarian aspect of TAM have no significant effect on online shopping behavior. We finally discuss the implications and limitations of our study and provide some future study suggestions.
  • JEL Classification: D12, D81, C91, C83, L81
  • Keywords: experiment, online purchasing, questionnaire, risk preference elicitation, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), trust
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-04

Analysis of the Influence of the Emotional, Intellectual and Spiritual Intelligence on Employee Performance with Work Motivation as a Moderating Variable

  • Page: 51
  • Authors: Cheng-Wen LEE, Alum KUSUMAH
  • Abstract: The importance of this study is to identify the influence of emotional, intellectual and spiritual intelligence factors on employee performance, through work motivation as a moderating variable in the PIKP Company, bridging the gap between existing research literature and offering an empirical reference to the industry's experience. This study demonstrates an empirical analysis by taking a quantitative approach to identifying and explaining the degree of the variables' influence on the hypotheses proposed. The emotional intelligence and intellectual variable demonstrated a positive and significant influence on the performance of the employee while the variable of spiritual intelligence had a positive but not significant influence. As for the moderating variable, the test results obtained on the performance of the employee reveal the results of the test hypotheses which vary. The empirical findings in this study were obtained through t-test and Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA).
  • JEL Classification: M12, M54
  • Keywords: Emotional intelligence, Employee performance, Intellectual intelligence, Spiritual intelligence, Work motivation
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-05

Is Emotional Intelligence a Determinant Factor for Leader’s Skills Development? Essential Literature Perspectives

  • Page: 68
  • Authors: Ştefan Gabriel BURCEA, Oana Matilda SABIE
  • Abstract: The purpose of the paper is to emphasize the complexity of the concept and the difficulty of measuring emotional intelligence. There is a particular concern for highlighting the specific aspects of emotional intelligence role and contribution to the development of leadership skills. A brief review of the studies dealing with this topic is carried out within the article, precisely to demonstrate the utility of some future research directions in the field of emotional intelligence, like part of behavioural studies in organisations.
  • JEL Classification: M19
  • Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence models, leadership
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-06


Improving the Engineering Students’ Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy through a Specialised Course – A Way to Improve Startup Management

  • Page: 78
  • Authors: Andrei DUMITRESCU
  • Abstract: Entrepreneurial self-efficacy is considered a reliable indicator of the entrepreneurial intentions. In order to measure the entrepreneurial self-efficacy, several scales were developed. These scales are used also to measure the efficiency of entrepreneurship study programmes, but were not used for individual courses until now. This paper presents the results of application of an entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale to measure the increase of entrepreneurial self-efficacy of engineering students after completing an entrepreneurship course in a technical university. The course lead to a significant increase of entrepreneurial self-efficacy overall, but also on all considered factors and items. It was observed a gender difference at the beginning of the course and also a gender difference in the increase of self-efficacy. An interesting finding was that for a certain factor it was noted a regress in self-efficacy for few students. Because those students thought the process was simpler than it is in reality and after acknowledging the complexity of the process, they felt unconfident.
  • JEL Classification: I23, L26
  • Keywords: entrepreneurial self-efficacy scale, entrepreneurship course, startup management
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-07

Volunteering in the Heritage Sector: Opportunities and Trends

  • Page: 91
  • Authors: Mihaela PĂCEȘILĂ
  • Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to get a deeper understanding of the role of heritage volunteering in young people’s personal and professional development. The empirical research is based on a survey of a sample of 50 volunteers within the National Museum of Romania History from Bucharest. The study indicates that heritage volunteering is important for both individuals and community. Furthermore, the results of the research showed similarities with certain authors’ statements mentioned in section Theoretical background. Overall, this research demonstrates the value of heritage volunteering in a society where professional experience and networking are extremely important in finding a job for young people.
  • JEL Classification: B10, Z10, Z19
  • Keywords: benefits of volunteering in museums, heritage volunteering, professional development
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-08


Overview and Analysis of Industry in Vietnam under Taiwan’s Southbound Policy

  • Page: 108
  • Authors: Tzu-Yi YANG, Nguyen Phuc NGUYEN, Wen-Chuan FU, Chia-Jui PENG
  • Abstract: Taiwan proposes southbound policy from 1993 until now. But this policy doesn’t tell which industries are suitable for entering into each country? Also, Taiwan was ranked number one to investment Vietnam from 2001 to 2006. Therefore, this research uses regression model to analyze which industries are currently suitable for investment in Vietnam. The research period is from January 05 2009 to October 01 2019, and the research results show that the appropriate industries are slightly from Ho Chi Minh and Hanoi markets.
  • JEL Classification: D22, D04, L69, L79
  • Keywords: Hanoi Market, Ho Chi Minh Market, Southbound Policy, Vietnam
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-09

Employment Absorption: Elasticity in the Industry and Services Sector in Indonesia

  • Page: 125
  • Authors: Dio Caisar DARMA, Jati KASUMA, Muhammad IKBAL 
  • Abstract: Increased economic development in the industrial and service sectors is a component that is expected to be able to contribute significantly to the Indonesian economy. The research objective is to compare the number of absorbed workforces and employment elasticity in the industrial and service sectors in Indonesia. Variables used in this study consist of the variable influence of labor and GDP on production units, in this case, the industrial sector and the service sector which can later compare elasticities employment opportunities in the industrial and service sectors. In this study, the type of data used is secondary data from 2010-2019. The analytical tool used is a two-step structural model and analyzed using SPSS. From the results of the analysis, it was found that the elasticity of employment in the industrial sector is positive inelastic. The elasticity of employment in the service sector is positive inelastic. The elasticity of employment in the service sector is greater than the elasticity of employment in the industrial sector in Indonesia.
  • JEL Classification: E24, O10, L7, L89
  • Keywords: economic growth, employment, GDP, industrial sector, service sector
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-10

Female Labor Force Participation Rate in Indonesia: An Empirical Evidence from Panel Data Approach

  • Page: 136
  • Authors: Gatot SASONGKO, Bernard Edheney HURUTA, Andrian Dolfriandra HURUTA
  • Abstract: Economic development constantly faces various macroeconomic issues such as achieving inflation targets, creating job opportunities, increasing economic growth, solving unemployment problems, and flattening income distribution. This study aims at analyzing the impact of provincial minimum wages, economic growth, and education level on female labor force participation rate. We generated the data from Indonesia's Central Bureau of Statistics website. This study employs panel data that consists of the time-series data from 2014 to 2018 and cross-sectional data of 34 provinces in Indonesia. By using the fixed-effect econometric model, we demonstrate that the provincial minimum wage and education level have significantly positive effects on female labor force participation rate. However, economic growth has no significant effect on female labor force participation rate. These findings suggest that the Indonesian government needs to consider minimum wages, education, work age, and work experience as policy instruments to increase female labor force participation rate. This study contributes to the literature in Indonesia by using a panel data approach.
  • JEL Classification: E24, E29
  • Keywords: female labor force participation rate, provincial minimum wage, economic growth, education level, panel data
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-11

Sustainable Growth Rate: Between Fixed Asset Growth and Firm Value

  • Page: 147
  • Authors: Nur LISTIANI, Supramono SUPRAMONO
  • Abstract: This study seeks to test the effect of fixed asset growth on sustainable growth rate and the role of sustainable growth rate in mediating the impact of fixed asset growth rate on firm value. This study involves 134 Indonesian manufacturing firms in 2013-2018. We analyze the data by using the panel data regression with both the fixed and random effect models. The results demonstrate that fixed asset growth positively affects sustainable growth rate. Besides, the findings show the positive impact of sustainable growth rate on firm value and that sustainable growth rate strengthens the impact of fixed asset growth on firm value. This study contributes to extend the previous literature on sustainable growth rates. In addition, it has several implications that are relevant for firm managers and investors relating to the relationship between sustainable growth and asset investment and firm value. However, this study is subject to several caveats that need to be emphasized by future studies.
  • JEL Classification: G31. G39
  • Keywords: firm value, fixed asset growth, pecking order theory, sustainable growth rate
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-12

The Challenges Facing Expatriate Managers Working in Foreign Countries

  • Page: 160
  • Authors: Murad Muzafer HAMZE
  • Abstract: Expatriation or assignments overseas are key personnel strategies used by multinational organisations in their overseas operations to fill managerial positions. However, working in a foreign country is highly pressured, stressful and many expatriates fail. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to discover the challenges and complexities facing expertise (expatriate) managers working in foreign countries. A quantitative approach using an online survey was conducted with 54 participants who were randomly selected from both the private and public sectors in Kurdistan. SPSS software was used to analyse the data collected. The key results revealed that most expatriates in Kurdistan claimed that the language barrier is one of the most significant factors in the workplace and may hinder their ability to communicate effectively with Kurdish employees and individuals. Simultaneously, despite having cultural differences, expatriates were able to adapt to the Kurdish business culture and cultural adjustment. Future research should consider using a qualitative method and a large sample size, in addition to identifying what foreign organisations in Kurdistan must do to reduce the likelihood of their managers failing to fulfil their duties and roles.
  • JEL Classification: M1, M16
  • Keywords: assignments, challenge, expatriate managers, multinational organisations
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-13

Managing the Transformation of Traditional to Organic Agriculture in Pune District: A Long Term Policy Framework

  • Page: 174
  • Authors: Sanjay RODE
  • Abstract: Organic farming is a natural method of cultivation of farms. It improves soil fertility, environment, health of animals and human being. Due to green revolution and commercialisation of agriculture, farmers have focused more on yield and output of all crops. Farmers are using chemical fertilisers and pesticides for high yields, big size, good shape and colour of fruits, grains and vegetables. The aim of this study is to understand effect of chemical fertilisers on the crops, surrounding environment, soil fertility, health of animals and people in Pune district. The present study finds that the farmers of Pune district are using dung, poultry manure and chemical fertilisers. Those farmers are using the poultry manure have more physical and animal assets, land holding, irrigation facilities, expenditure on health, education, income and education and experience of farmers. The multinomial logit regression result shows that those farmers are using the chemical fertilisers have less education, age, irrigated land. Women are less educated in such families. The use of chemical fertilisers have adverse effect on soil fertility, soil layers’, health of people and animals in district. Therefore, present study suggests to reduce the use of the chemical fertilisers for commercial crops. The state and central government, NGO’s, researchers and organisations must come together to manage and form a policy to reduce the chemical fertilisers use and increase the use of organic pesticides, fertilisers. Women’s education can play significant role in reducing the use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides in state. The availability of more credit facilities through banks, awareness through media, exports and domestic markets for organic products and encouragement to farmers to produce only organic products will help in this direction. In order to protect soil fertility, environment, water and air such policies are urgently required in India. For sustainable agriculture and economic growth, organic farming is most important.
  • JEL Classification: Q01, Q12, Q24, Q57
  • Keywords: education, fertility, nutrition, water supply
  • DOI: 10.24818/mer/2020.06-14
The Bucharest University of Economic Studies (ASE)
Faculty of Management, Department of Management
6, Piata Romana, 1st district, postal code: 010374, postal office 22, Bucharest, Romania
Phone: +4.021.319.19.00 | +4.021.319.19.01 / Int. 223
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E-mail: mer@man.ase.ro
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Publisher: Editura ASE, editura@net.ase.ro, www.ase.ro